Black Tits No 02 REPACK
Despite improvements in early detection and treatment for breast cancer, black women continue to have the highest breast cancer mortality rate. Since 1975, black women have had lower breast cancer incidence compared to white women, but rates have recently converged, in part because of increasing breast cancer incidence in black women.
Black Tits No 02
This report illustrates that the disparity in breast cancer mortality is stable, with comparable declines in death rates among younger black and white women. Previous studies have indicated that similar use of mammography screening among black and white women has led to more cancers being diagnosed at an early stage, and more appropriate treatment of aggressive cancers in young black women (4,8). At the population level, some communities have demonstrated success in achieving equity for black women dying from breast cancer; these successes provide opportunities to learn about pathways for improved outcomes (9).
The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, race and ethnicity data were ascertained from medical records and death certificates and might be subject to misclassification; however, misclassification is minimal for black and white race (10). Second, the most recent data are several years old, because current requirements for reporting cancer registry data are rigorous and require multiple steps. Finally, cancer registries do not routinely collect risk factor information that could inform the trends noted here.
Breast cancer mortality is decreasing for both black and white women, with equal pace of decrease for younger black and white women. Continued decreases involve accelerating current progress and understanding breast cancer genomics for predicting risk and promoting effective treatment through new initiatives like the Precision Medicine Initiative and Cancer Moonshot. Public health professionals need to work in tandem with scientists and clinical researchers to monitor the successes of these newly developed therapies by assessing disparities at a population level using trends in incidence and death rates.
Who was Henrietta Lacks?She was a black tobacco farmer from southern Virginia who got cervical cancer when she was 30. A doctor at Johns Hopkins took a piece of her tumor without telling her and sent it down the hall to scientists there who had been trying to grow tissues in culture for decades without success. No one knows why, but her cells never died.
Put simply, for black women far more than for white women, giving birth can amount to a death sentence. African American women are three to four times more likely to die during or after delivery than are white women. According to the World Health Organization, their odds of surviving childbirth are comparable to those of women in countries such as Mexico and Uzbekistan, where significant proportions of the population live in poverty.
Geronimus worked as a research assistant for a professor studying teen pregnancy among poor urban residents, and, as a volunteer at a Planned Parenthood clinic, witnessed close-up the lives of pregnant black teens living in poverty in Trenton, New Jersey. She felt a chasm open up between what some of her white male professors were confidently explicating about the lives of these adolescents and how the young women themselves saw their lives.
Arline Geronimus takes a wider view of the issue, arguing that the solution to racial inequities in maternal mortality is to change the way society works. In the near term, she says, race should regularly be taken into consideration during prenatal risk screenings, because even younger black women could be at increased risk of pregnancy complications. Risk status by maternal age should be reappraised in context, as well. While most women in their 20s and early 30s are considered low-risk, black women may be weathered and biologically older than their chronological age, she said, which makes them more subject to health complications at younger ages. 041b061a72